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    استخدامات الأفعال الناقصة

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    استخدامات الأفعال الناقصة

    مُساهمة من طرف ادارة المدرسة في الخميس أغسطس 19, 2010 12:39 pm

    استخدامات الأفعال الناقصة


    The use of modal verbs :
    can




    a- ability = be able to = capable to



    He can speak English , but he can't write it.



    b- permission : can I smoke in here



    c- possibility theoretical or factual



    e.g. theoretical : anybody can make mistake



    e.g. factuality : the road can be blocked




    could :




    past ability : I never could play the banjo



    2- present or future permission : could I smoke in here



    3- present possibility ( theoretical or factual )



    a- we could go to the concert



    b- the road could be blocked



    4- contingent possibility or ability in unreal conditionals sentences :



    if we had money , we could buy a car




    may \ might




    1- permission you may borrow my car if you like = you are allowed



    the negation of this sentence is : you mustn’t , you are not allowed to , you may not borrow my car



    2- possibility ( usually factual )



    the road may be blocked



    might :




    1- permission : might I smoke in here.



    2- possibility – theoretical or factual



    e.g. we might go to the concert ( theoretical )



    what you say might be true ( factual )




    shall :




    1- willingness on the part of the speaker in 2nd and 3rd person ( restricted use )



    e.g. he shall get his money , you shall do exactly as you wish



    2- intention on the part of the speaker ( 1 st ) person



    e.g. I shan't be long , we shall be back after one hour



    3- insistence on the part of the speaker in the first person



    e.g. you shall do what I say



    4- legal and quasi legal : he shall be punished



    the vendor shall maintain the equipment in good repair




    should :




    1- obligation and logical necessity : you should do as he say \ they should be home by now



    2- putative use after certain expression : it is odd that you should say this to me



    I am sorry that should have happened



    3- contingent use in the first person only ( we + I )



    in the main clause = would



    e.g. we should \ would love to go abroad if we had the chance



    4- in rather formal real condition



    e.g. if you should change your mind , please let us know




    will :



    1- willingness in polite request



    e.g. he will help you , if you ask him \ will you have another cup of tea?



    2-intention ( usually contacted to 'll , mainly in the first person )



    I 'll write as soon as I can \ we won' t stay longer more than 2 hours



    3- insistence ( no contraction )



    e.g. he will do it whatever you say



    4- predication



    a- specific predication : the game will \ must \ should be finished by now



    b- timeless predication : oil will float \ floats on water



    c- habitual predication : he will ( always ) talk for hours if you give him the chance




    would :



    1- willingness : would you excuse me ?



    2- insistence : it is your own fault , you would take the baby with you



    3- characteristic activity in the past ( used to )



    e.g. he would go for along walk every day



    4- contingent use in the main clause : he would smoke too much if you didn’t stop him.



    5- probability : that would be his mother




    must :



    1- obligation : you must be back by 10 o'clock .



    and to negation this sentence we do the following :



    you need not to \ you don’t have to \ you are not obliged to \ …. Be back by 10 o'clock.



    For past we say : yesterday you had to be back by 10 o'clock .



    But for reported speech both ( had to and must ) are possible



    2-logical necessity : there must be a mistake



    negative : there can't be a mistake.



    3- superficially interrogative but answer assuming sentence



    e.g. mustn't there be another reason for his behavior?




    Ought to : obligation – logical necessity : you ought to start at once

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الإثنين ديسمبر 05, 2016 5:30 am